Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a substance in the brain that promotes neuronal growth. It’s also involved in neuroplasticity in the developing brain. There is increasing interest in the role of BDNF in depression for several reasons.
We know that various brain structures are decreased in size in patients with major depressive disorder. Specific areas include the anterior cingulate, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala all of which are implicated in depression. Decreased serum levels of BDNF have been found in patients with depression and may be in part responsible for these changes.
Mutations to the BDNF gene have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Antidepressant medications can increase BDNF, and in part may explain the effects of these medications.