Disgraced Crypto King Sam Bankman And The Selegiline Patch 

There has been a lot of news recently about Sam Bankman, the onetime billionaire turned supervillain. At its peak, his company FTX had an in-house performance coach and psychiatrist named George K. Lerner. It’s unclear how many FTX employees Dr. Lerner treated but he did admit to treating some for ADHD and stated “the rate of ADHD at FTX was in line with most tech companies” whatever that means. I’m not here to debate the practices of the good doctor, but Bankman was known to talk publicly about experimenting with focus-enhancing medications. The main medications he allegedly used to become limitless were stimulants such as Adderall and the more interesting one to me and the topic of this week’s video the selegiline patch.

We are going to discuss selegiline in depth and try to understand why a medication primarily used to treat Parkinson’s may be useful for enhancing focus, creativity, and productivity in the fast-paced world of cryptocurrency. 

What is Selegiline?

Although many may not have heard of this medication, it’s actually a very old concept in psychiatry. A common “pimping” question in psychiatry residency is what was the first antidepressant medication? Most residents will say it was the tricyclic antidepressants which isn’t a bad guess but it’s not correct. The correct answer is the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) specifically iproniazid a failed treatment for tuberculosis. In 1952 researcher noted that patients receiving this medication became unusually happy, this was shocking considering the medication did nothing for their tuberculosis.

Transdermal selegiline is a tissue selective MAOI (MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor in the brain) and a relatively selective MAO-B inhibitor in the gut. This is an important point, and I will explain more about it as we move through this topic. 

How Do MAOIs Work?

We are speaking about the transdermal selegiline patch here but there is also an oral version that is not approved for major depressive disorder and is a selective MAO-B inhibitor. 

The transdermal patch acts in the brain as an irreversible inhibitor of both MAO-A and MAO-B which are enzymes responsible for breaking down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine which in turn will boost the noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission. 

In lay terms this medication increases the availability of all three major neurotransmitters so that more serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine is available to act on post synaptic receptors affecting changes in cells and circuits involved in depression. 

FDA Approvals for Selegiline

This is a little complicated because news outlets have stated the medication is only used for Parkinson’s disease which is true if we are talking about the oral tablets. The transdermal patch is FDA approved for major depressive disorder. 

Off label use includes the treatment of treatment resistant depression, panic disorder, social anxiety (which MAOIs are usually superior at treating), treatment resistant anxiety, and Alzheimer’s disease. 

How to Dose Selegiline

The transdermal patch comes in various doses: 

  • 6 mg/24 hours
  • 9 mg/24 hours
  • 12 mg/24 hours 

The initial dose for depression is 6 mg/24 hours and it can be increased by 3 mg/24 hours every 2 weeks to a maximum dose of 12 mg/24 hours. Dietary modification to restrict tyramine from food sources is not required for the 6 mg/24hr patch but at higher doses the same food restrictions are required as other oral MAOIs such as phenelzine. This will be important for our next discussion on side effects. 

Side Effects of Selegiline

Before starting the medication, the patient should be aware of the potential for increased blood pressure. 

Notable Side effects include 

  • Skin reactions at the site of application (the location of the patch should be rotated daily) 
  • Headaches
  • Dry mouth 
  • Diarrhea
  • Insomnia
  • Sedation
  • Possible weight gain 

Serious side effects include: 

  • Hypertensive Crisis 
  • Seizure
  • Induction of manic episodes in bipolar disorder 

Contraindications when combined with:

  • Meperidine
  • Another MAOI 
  • SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, tramadol 
  • Dextromethorphan
  • St. John’s wort 
  • Methadone
  • History of Pheochromocytoma 
  • Elective surgery 
  • Proven allergy to selegiline 

The Dreaded Tyramine Reaction 

I believe that MAOIs might be the most effective of the antidepressants because of their ability to affect all three major neurotransmitter circuits, but they are rarely used clinically. In most residency training programs, we are not taught to use these medications. The main barrier is the dietary restrictions and risk for hypertensive crisis if the diet is not followed. 

This diet should be started a week or so before staring the medication. It allows the patient time to get accustomed to the dietary recommendations before being on the medication when the stakes are higher. The diet must be followed for 2 weeks after stopping the MAOI as it can take time for the MAO enzymes to regenerate due to irreversible inhibition. 

Tyramine is an amino acid that is found in some foods, and it helps to regulate blood pressure. MAOIs are responsible for breaking this amino acid down so it’s inactive and unable to causes an increase in blood pressure. When you block MAO excess tyramine will be available to affect blood pressure. 

Ingestion of a high tyramine meal is generally considered to be any meal with 40 mg or more in the fasted state. For the low dose transdermal patch 6 mg/24 hours studies show that 200-400 mg of tyramine in the fasted state is required for a hypertensive response. In general, at low doses dietary modification is not required. If the dose is increased to 12 mg/24 hours than 70-100 mg of tyramine is required for a hypertensive response. Although dietary modification may not be required at higher doses, it’s safer to avoid tyramine rich foods once the selegiline dose is increased and to be cautious at lower doses as well. 

Low Tyramine Diet Principles

When a patient is on an MAOI diet they should only eat things that are fresh. This goes for food that are stored as well as the storage process may affect the tyramine content. The patient should avoid foods that are beyond their expiration date and avoid fruits and vegetables that are overly ripe. Some cheeses are allowed in the diet, but all aged cheese should be avoided. The same can be said for meat products, fresh meats are fine, but aged or spoiled meats should be avoided. 

Fermented products need to be avoided when MAOIs are being used. This goes for all fermented products without exception. 

Chinese food and some other eastern foods should be avoided because they contain soy, shrimp paste, tofu, and soy sauces all of which are high in tyramine. 

Fava and other broad beans should be avoided this includes Italian green beans. 

Foods to Avoid

  • Matured or aged cheeses (cheddar, and blue examples) 
  • Meats: fermented or dry sausages (pepperoni, salami), aged, cured, unrefrigerated, pickled, smoked meats 
  • Caviar, dried, pickled, or smoked fish 
  • Overripe avocados, fava beans, sauerkraut, fermented soya bean, and soya bean paste 
  • Overripe fruits: canned figs, banana peel, orange pulp 
  • Beverages: chianti, sherry, liquors, all tap beers, unfiltered beer containing yeast 
  • Soy products: soy sauce, tofu 
  • Other: miso soup, yeast vitamin supplements, packaged soups 

Foods That are Allowed

  • Cheeses: cream cheese, ricotta, fresh cottage cheese, mozzarella, processed cheese slices like American cheese 
  • Milk Products: yogurt, sour cream, and ice cream 
  • Meat: fresh packaged or processed meat e.g. hot dogs 
  • Beverages: coffee, tea, soda, up to a maximum of 2 drinks either 12 oz of canned or bottled beer or 4 oz of red/white wine. 
  • Soy products: soy milk 
  • Other foods: chocolate in moderation and monosodium glutamate in moderation 

Onset of Action

The therapeutic effect is usually not immediate and still requires 2-4 weeks or longer once an adequate dose is reached. 

Augmentation

For expert psychopharmacologist Only: 

  • You may consider a stimulant such as d-amphetamine, or methylphenidate while watching for increased blood pressure, suicidal ideation, and activation of bipolar disorder) 
  • Lithium
  • Seconded generation dopamine blocking medication 
  • Mood stabilizing anticonvulsant 

Advantages to using MAOIs

  • May be effective in treatment resistant depression 
  • May improve atypical depressive symptoms such as hypersomnia and hyperphagia 
  • Lower risk for weight gain and sexual side effects 

Why Would Selegiline Improve Cognitive function?

Selegiline will increase dopamine and more dopamine in the prefrontal cortex theoretically will enhance cognitive function. A lot of the research on MAOIs and cognitive enhancement come from studies in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. While promising as reported in several articles it does not appear that proper randomized controlled trials were ever conducted. If you watch my videos than you should know the risk of assuming that something that should theoretically work will also work clinically. This is the story of many medications in psychiatry. We also cannot extrapolate that to healthy individuals who do not have neurodegenerative disorders.

Selegiline is metabolized to l-amphetamine, and l-methamphetamine which are well known stimulants that may improve symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Again, this is theoretical and has never been proven but based on the metabolism of the medication it makes sense that it may enhance cognition in those with ADHD or even healthy individuals. 

People often forget that depression itself is a major reason for cognitive problems. Depression in elderly patients is sometimes referred to as pseudodementia because it can look like the individuals has substantial cognitive deficits in severe cases. It’s possible that the improvement in depressive symptoms is responsible for the enhanced cognitive function. 

Conclusion

I think this is a good discussion because it highlights an often-forgotten class of medication in modern psychiatry that can be utilized for patients who have failed other medication options. Many psychiatrists are untrained or too scared to use these medications clinically. As far as cognitive enhancement and finding that limitless pill, I do not think this is it. While it may theoretically improve cognitive function it’s never been proven in randomized controlled trials. I would say the evidence supporting this idea is weak and may even be dangerous given the risk for hypertensive crisis. 

Take Your Pills: Xanax What They Got Right 

As many might know there is a new Netflix documentary called Take Your Pills: Xanax and it combines interview footage from physicians, patients, and journalists about anxiety and the use of Xanax. For the most part I thought there were a lot of reasonable discussions about anxiety, its treatment, and the role of medication. I feel like this is an appropriate way to cap off our recent discussions about anxiety disorders and treatment. 

Fear and Anxiety: Are They the Same Thing? 

The documentary made it seem like anxiety and fear are the same thing and that the exact same neurobiology is involved in each case. I think about anxiety and fear as two separate things that require different approaches. 

Anxiety is what an individual feels when they are worried about something that could potentially happen in the future. If you watched my other videos on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) then you know the Diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) has made excessive worry the hallmark of GAD.

Fear is a core emotion along with sadness, anger, joy, excitement, and disgust. It’s different than anxiety, which is a fear of some future event happening. Fear is triggered in the moment. When you see that bear walking on the hiking trail or hear the rattle of a snake the fear centers of our brain are activated immediately in that moment. It’s not that we are obsessing about some future outcome, there is something present in the environment that is threatening and demands immediate action.

The Fear Center of The Brain

In humans the fear center of the brain is called the amygdala which stands for almond and that’s because they taste like almonds. No, wait that isn’t right, it’s because they are shaped like an almond. The amygdala is what fires when you see that bear in the woods. This triggers the fight or flight response which leads to things like increase blood flow to the muscles, and increased energy. It prepares the body to run away or fight if necessary. 

Benzodiazepines MOA

Benzodiazepines enhance GABA activity by acting as allosteric modulators of the GABA-A receptors. This is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the body, and it acts to dampen everything down. Benzodiazepines increase the frequency of opening of chloride ion channels which in turn inhibits the cell and prevents the neuron from firing. 

Anxiety Is a Part of Life

As I’ve said before we all have anxiety under certain circumstances. It’s not always a bad thing to have anxiety. In many ways anxiety reminds us that this situation is important, and we need to be appropriately prepared. A healthy amount of anxiety is a good thing overall. 

Things go sideways when the anxiety is chronic, persistent, and severe. As I’ve stated in the previous videos some people are just more prone to anxiety. These individuals are high in the big 5 personality trait of neuroticism. While most of us will fall somewhere in the middle there will be outliers on either side with some having significantly less anxiety and others having significantly more.  

The one thing that made this documentary hard to follow is that they combined all the anxiety disorders together, at one point they were describing panic attacks, social anxiety, and GAD as if they are all part of the same disease process. While there is significant overlap, the course of illness, and treatment plans will vary greatly which is why proper diagnosis is so important. 

Xanax Works great for Physical Symptoms of Panic Attacks 

When the interviewees start talking about Xanax it’s in the context of people experiencing panic attack. This is an important distinction to note as most of the symptoms of panic attacks are physical and thus will have a greater response to benzodiazepines. If we are talking about GAD, or social anxiety the anxious thoughts will still be there, and the benzodiazepine may be less effective. 

Why Temperament and Environment Deserves More Attention 

Much of our baseline temperament is genetic and will be part of the story that determines if you will have more or less anxiety. The other part of the story is environment. The experiences we have matter a lot too. In child psychiatry, there has been this huge focus on minimizing adverse childhood events (ACES). We discovered that things like sexual abuse, physical abuse, and loss of a parent can result in significant risk for poor health outcomes in the future. Baseline temperament that predisposes someone to anxiety combined with significant lifetime trauma could set the table for a future anxiety disorder. 

The Prevalence of Benzodiazepine Use 

In this documentary they make it seem like benzodiazepine prescriptions have skyrocketed over the last several decades. These prescriptions have increased but we need to explore why. One thing I see all the time is primary care providers prescribing benzodiazepines for patients early in treatment for depression and anxiety. Before exploring psychotherapy or other medication options the person walks out with a Xanax prescription. There is a reason the research tells us most people who see a primary care provider for depression and anxiety do not get better. In fact, as few as 20% of those started on antidepressants by primary care will show significant clinical improvement. This is not a knock on primary care, it’s more that they have been thrown into a mental health crisis and are usually the first person to encounter a patient with anxiety. 

The important trends I would like people to pay more attention to is the risk of prescribing opioids and benzodiazepines in combination. This can result in increased risk for overdose death and a significant risk for severe respiratory depression. In addiction treatment people often feel very anxious when stopping opioids and it’s common to want to address that anxiety as a doctor. What ends up happening is people are on medication treatment for opioid use disorder, a benzodiazepine for anxiety, and gabapentin for that little extra relief. All these medications in combination put the patient at risk for adverse outcomes. Another thing to pay attention to is where all the opioid prescriptions are coming from. The highest rates are in many southern states and in places like West Virginia where the opioid epidemic hit the hardest. The final item to discuss is the increased rates of benzodiazepine prescribing in the elderly. There seems to be an increase in benzodiazepine use in this population which is more dangerous due to the risk of falls, altered mental status, and possibly dementia. 

There has been a lot of talk over the years about the increased risk of dementia associated with benzodiazepine use. There data has been mixed, but I would say it’s largely in favor of using caution when prescribing benzodiazepines in older populations and avoiding the long-term use of benzodiazepines in all populations.

Social Media and Anxiety 

I think social media has done as much harm as it has good for people’s mental health. If you believe everything you see on social media, the impression is everyone you know, or follow is winning, and you are losing. In the past you only had to compare your life to people in your community. Now, we get to compare our lives to the world. Not only are we comparing our lives to large pool of people, but we are also comparing them to people who have created online personas under false pretenses. These are individuals rent house for photo shoots to make you believe that is where they live, or people taking steroids then asking you to buy some supplement that does not provide the results it promises. We all like to think we are immune to these types of schemes, but we are not. In our minds we are comparing our worst moments to other people’s best moments and assuming that this is reality. This is clearly a recipe for anxiety and depression. 

Dangerous Coping Strategies for Anxiety 

I do not think using alcohol or drugs to alter one’s state of consciousness is exclusive to the past. People have been doing this forever, and it remains a poor way to cope with anxiety. I think one of our problems is attempting to cure the stresses of life. In my practice I do not believe that taking a medication or using alcohol are ways to “cure” anxiety. Most individuals need to take a long hard look at their life and see where the anxiety is coming from and where life changes can be implemented to reduce the tension. When someone takes time to systematically dissect the cause of their anxiety, they often already know what they should do. Take more time off work, practice better self-care, exercise, eat healthy, and sleep better these examples all come to mind for most patients. Most people feel trapped and do not believe they can carve out the time to do these things and that is part of the reason they turn to medication or drugs/alcohol to cope. 

While I still believe benzodiazepines can be useful in the right context, they are designed to be used short term. I set limits with my patients early in the process letting them know up front that we are not using this as a long-term solution for their anxiety. 

Potential Side Effects of Benzodiazepine use 

They did a nice job of describing the changes in memory that occur because of benzodiazepine use. The ability to laydown new memories is impaired when using benzodiazepines that is why I caution anyone with PTSD who is in trauma-based psychotherapy to avoid the use of benzodiazepines. They also focused on the disinhibition caused by increased GABA-A activity. This is less a side effect and more a response that should be expected from the medication. Most individuals with anxiety are wound too tight and have trouble relaxing. The problem with this response occurs when that disinhibition is excessive resulting in embarrassment or inability to work for example. 

Withdrawal from these medications can be deadly. There is risk for seizure, rebound anxiety, rebound insomnia all of which can be very distressing. The problem with benzodiazepine withdrawal is the variability in terms of patient’s tolerance to dose reductions. Some patients can tapper off very quickly and have no issue, others need to be tapered slowly over months to years. While I would say it’s rare to have someone who is very sensitive to dose adjustments it can happen and tapering slowly while watching for withdrawal symptoms is important. The example of the guy pipetting a liquid microdose of alprazolam would not be a normal situation, and if you just watch this documentary, you may think everyone who tries to come off these medications must go through a similar process. Benzodiazepines can be safely reduced under the guidance of doctor. 

Conclusion

What we see in the end is more of the same recommendations most of my patients would tell “doc I already know this.” They talked about using complementary and alternative medicine which I am a big fan of, diet, exercise, mindfulness, and psychotherapy to find the underlying causes of the excessive worry. They introduce the idea at the end that the world is broken and defective and we should not have to accept the world as it is. This is fine but significant change on a massive scale takes time and it still leaves people asking the question “what do I do right now.” I’m personally active in advocacy work at the local and state level, which is one approach, but it takes a lot of time and resources to affect policy changes and not every patient will have the time or desire to engage in such activities. The only true way out of anxiety is through it. Daily life is painful, and we need to accept that to some degree. Medicating away feelings that are part of life is certainly not the solution and can be the reason we find ourselves in trouble. 

The Truth About Anxiety Treatments: What Really Works 

In the first part of this series, we discussed anxiety and specifically generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a diagnosis. Now we are going to look at the research associated with the treatment of GAD and let the research inform our decision making about what works when a person presents with GAD. Some of these findings may surprise you. 

SSRIs 

Although the effect size of SSRIs in GAD is small, 0.33 they remain the recommended first line option for treatment. It’s also important to confirm that someone has had an adequate trial of SSRI treatment before assuming it’s not effective. The choice of which SSRI will depend on the side effect profile and other patient factors such as presence of insomnia, substance use, or pregnancy. Escitalopram is a good place to start, fluoxetine, or sertraline can be alternative options. Although paroxetine has the FDA approval for GAD it has more side effects like weight gain and sedation, along with several other factors that make this medication a poor first-line option. If the first medication trial is ineffective it’s reasonable to try a second SSRI or switch to the SNRI duloxetine. 

When SSRIs Don’t Work

The next step in many cases is to try a medication from a different class. Two SNRIs have been well studied in GAD, venlafaxine, and duloxetine. Venlafaxine is not considered a first line choice due to the side effect profile and the small increase in efficacy. From the meta-analysis on anxiety treatments the effect size is 0.36 slightly better than the SSRIs but it would likely be undetectable clinically. Duloxetine is slightly better with respect to side effects and can be a good choice if you chose to use an SNRI for anxiety treatment. It has the added benefit of lower risk for sexual side effects compared to venlafaxine and possibly improved cognition.

Bupropion in Anxiety Disorders

There is some evidence for the use of bupropion in GAD. In one study small study of 25 participants bupropion beat the SSRI escitalopram head-to-head. Other lines of evidence include more improvement in GAD when bupropion was added as a combination treatment with SSRIs compared to adding buspirone. For clarification the effect size of buspirone in GAD is 0.17 which would be unlikely to produce any observable clinical improvement in anxiety symptoms. I largely stay away from buspirone unless it’s used to treat sexual side effects of SSRIs. Bupropion may be good option for patients who do not want the side effect profile of an SSRI. Although we lack the large RCTs for bupropion in GAD there is some evidence to support its use. The negative studies indicating bupropion worsened symptoms of anxiety come from studies in panic disorder where bupropion was found to worsen panic symptoms. 

What About New Antidepressants?

Vortioxetine had a lot of hype when it first came out, and many believed it would work for GAD. Unfortunately, like many medications when we believe something should theoretically work based on the mechanism of action, we are sadly disappointed. This is one of those cases. The effect size was found to be 0.12 and it did not even cross into the small range. This medication performed worse than buspirone for GAD.  

Vilazodone also had one positive study published for GAD. Again, based on the MOA it should work just fine, it has typical SSRI like effects in addition to 5-HT1A effects like buspirone, you should get the best of both worlds theoretically. This one positive study was followed by two distinctly negative studies and a calculated effect size of 0.26 which is considered small. 

Both were not submitted for FDA approval for GAD based on the negative results. 

The Hydroxyzine Argument

Hydroxyzine is an antihistamine that’s been out for a long time. As I stated earlier it has approval for tension associated with psychoneurosis which is the old psychanalytic way of describing anxiety. It’s often seen as ineffective, but the effect size was higher than SSRIs and SNRIs for the treatment of GAD. Hydroxyzine had an effect size of 0.45, and we may want to reconsider the use of this medication. Some limitations are the size of the studies and duration of the studies, but this still provides a fair amount of evidence that hydroxyzine may perform better than we think. 

Quetiapine Surprised Me

Quetiapine is an antipsychotic medication usually not considered as a treatment option for anxiety disorders. However, the effect size was large with a range from 1.0 to 2.2. To put this in perspective this medication outperformed SSRIs, SNRIs, and benzodiazepines. Why did it not gain FDA approval? If you watched my other videos, you should know that the side effect profile is difficult to tolerate. Metabolic side effects and sedation are common, and the FDA does not view anxiety disorders as significant enough to warrant this degree of risk. One place where this medication may be very useful is in bipolar disorder with severe anxiety. We avoid antidepressants in this population at all costs, quetiapine offers a good option with strong evidence and strong antidepressant effects in bipolar depression. 

Where this fits in clinical practice for me is as a 3rd or 4th line option after all other avenues have been explored except for bipolar disorder as stated above. The antipsychotic medications have been known to have a positive effect on anxiety, but the limitation remains side effects. 

Anxiety as a less Severe Form of Psychiatric Illness

According to the FDA medications like aripiprazole and quetiapine are reasonable adjunctive therapies for patients with major depression that does not respond to first line treatment options. This is not their view for anxiety disorders that respond poorly to first line options. When we look at disability caused by depression and anxiety there isn’t much difference in the odds of being disabled for depression vs anxiety (3.5 Vs 3.1). For whatever reason we continue to view anxiety as less significant although DSM does not identify a clear diagnostic hierarchy. 

Things like psychotherapy are often recommended as first line options. In the 1980’s when GAD was first conceived, it was thought to be a mild disorder where psychotherapy is the most effective treatment. In fact, psychotherapy did well it had an effect size of 0.5 which is nearly the same as benzodiazepines. Psychotherapy is a good place to start for anyone presenting with an anxiety disorder. I’m also a big believer of combining psychotherapy and medication for anxiety disorders. 

What about Benzos?

Benzodiazepines can have all sorts of effects on the body. Largely we think of the benefits of benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders as having a major effect on the physical symptoms of anxiety and not so much on the chronic worry that characterizes the disorder. Many of the effects of benzodiazepines would not be measured by traditional anxiety rating scales based on the updated conception of GAD. Nevertheless, Benzodiazepines had an effect size of 0.4-0.5 which falls into the moderate range for GAD. 

A final Option to Consider

Silexan the proprietary extract of Lavender oil has good evidence and a large effect size when used to treat GAD. In Germany there is a respect for the power of natural products, and they are regulated and prescribed in the same manner as pharmaceutical drugs. When silexan was studied in GAD the effect size can range from 0.5 to 0.9. This is a large effect size and I have another video that covers Silexan in detail if you are interested. This can be added to most medication regimens without significant drug interactions and has even been shown to decrease the use of benzodiazepines in those who are using them for GAD. It can be purchased under the brand Name Calm Aid for around $30 per month, and if you are wondering I get no financial compensation for saying this I’m just presenting the evidence. 

Conclusion

We covered a lot here today and I think one of the most important points to stress is the importance of finding the underlying cause of anxiety symptoms. I believe anxiety is driven by other underlying factors as discussed at the beginning of the video. There are many reasons to be anxious and all require a different approach. Without this clarification the patient is likely to continue struggling. Another important point is theoretical mechanism of action that should work, do not always work as seen in the case of vilazodone. We also had some surprises, hydroxyzine, and silexan performed very well but traditional first line options such as SSRI and SNRIs were not so great. I hope this discussion was helpful and if you want more content on anxiety disorders, let me know below in the comments section. 

The Rise of Generalized Anxiety Disorder 

Anxiety is pervasive in the world today. All of us including me know what it’s like to be anxious. We have all read recent articles about how the COVID-19 pandemic increased anxiety around the world, and this has placed a lot of focus on anxiety as a psychiatric diagnosis. Anxiety in my opinion is not an independent disease the way the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) would lead you to believe. Anxiety is a symptom that has various potential causes and that’s what we are here to talk about today. 

This is inspired by a real case where I needed to do a deep drive into the literature to understand the root of anxiety and its treatments. I hope you guys enjoy the topic.

Introduction 

Generalized Anxiety disorder has been revised significantly over the years by the DSM. It seems like no one knowns what GAD is, or if it’s an independent disease state. The DSM only provides descriptive criteria and does not comment on the underlying cause of anxiety. Prior DSM criteria from DSM III focused more heavily on autonomic and motor symptoms of anxiety. In these editions, what is now GAD was referred to as psychoneurosis an old Freudian term that fell out of favor as we moved away from psychoanalysis. Interesting fact, if you look up the indication for hydroxyzine in anxiety it still states “for tension associated with psychoneurosis.” The more recent updates in DSM have stepped away from these physical symptoms and focused more on the mental state of chronic and excessive worry. If we attempt to apply older studies on anxiety treatment to the current DSM criteria, they may not be valid. 

What I want to stress, is worrying is the core symptom of GAD now with at least 3 out of 6 of the following: 

-Restlessness 

-Being easily fatigued 

-Difficulty concentrating 

-Irritability 

-Muscle tension 

-Sleep disturbance include insomnia 

When I look at the criteria, they look a lot like depression to me. I often argue to my residents and medical students that it’s hard to separate depression and anxiety, but they usually disagree, so this video is for them as well. 

Causes of Anxiety 

We should try and figure out what the potential underlying causes are for anxiety. Since the DSM does not guide us here, we need to think through each possible cause. 

Personality: people often underestimate the importance of personality traits in psychiatry. One personality trait that is part of the “big 5” is neuroticism. We all have anxiety as a personality trait, some individuals have more some have less, but for the most part there is a normal distribution in the population. If you have more, you tend to get diagnosed as having a “anxiety disorder.” Most people fall in the middle we have some anxiety under specific circumstances but not enough for it to be identified as pathology. 

Depression: As I stated before there is a lot of overlap in the criteria for depression and generalized anxiety disorder. In fact, the same medications are used to treat both disorders. Depression can clearly be a cause of anxiety. 

Mania: people often mistakenly believe that people in manic states are having fun and love being that way. This is not true, and anxiety can be one of the potential symptoms associated with manic states. 

Psychosis: Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder can be anxiety provoking disorders 

PTSD: Excessive worry can be a part of PTSD 

Eating Disorders

Substance Use Disorders 

OCD

Other environmental factors can cause anxiety independent of those listed above: life stages, divorce, death of a loved one, diagnosis of severe physical illness, significant loss of physical function from an injury 

The point here is there are many things that could result in a state of high anxiety. What you should start to see here is once we rule out all these causes for anxiety there would be no way to diagnose an independent anxiety disorder. 

Just describing the symptoms of anxiety checking the boxes for the criteria and labeling someone as having “anxiety disorder” does not have much meaning. We have to say what the underlying cause of the anxiety is to treat the symptoms effectively. 

Myths About Medication in Anxiety Disorders

People often believe that anxiety responds faster to medication than depression. This is not true the response to medication takes the same amount of time for both anxiety and depression. This provides another layer of evidence that GAD can be driven by depressed states. Trials of medications such as SSRIs can last several weeks as doses are titrated until the individual has an acceptable level of response to the medication. 

There is also no established dose dependent response in GAD. Some believe that GAD responds better to higher doses of SSRIs, say 40 mg of escitalopram. This has not been established in the research literature. This may also indicate that the underlying cause is OCD which traditionally requires higher doses and longer duration of treatment. 

Many people presenting with anxiety will be started on an SSRI. In the past paroxetine was favored by primary care because it had the FDA indication for use in anxiety disorders. I never think paroxetine is the correct choice for anxiety due to the side effect profile which includes risk for withdrawal and harm during pregnancy. Citalopram has suffered a similar fate as dose dependent QTc prolongation limits the doses we can use in clinical practice. Escitalopram can prolong QTc at higher dose above the approved maximum but there is significantly less risk at standard doses. 

How effective are these medications for anxiety disorders? Not very, a meta-analysis found that SSRIs have an effect size of 0.33 falling into the low range. 

Part Two:

Part two of this series will be coming soon. I had way too much to say about the diagnosis of GAD that I didn’t leave any time to discuss treatment. Part two will included a detailed analysis of medications for GAD.

Gabapentin/Neurontin The Most Common off-Label Prescription in Psychiatry 

Introduction 

Gabapentin is approved by the FDA for three specific indications to prevent and control partial seizures, relieve nerve pain following shingles (post herpetic neuralgia), and to treat moderate to severe restless leg syndrome. Unfortunately, less than 1% of the prescriptions written for gabapentin are for the above listed FDA approvals. In fact, much of the off-label prescribing of gabapentin is done for the treatment of psychiatric and substance use disorders. 

We were first alerted to the misleading marketing practices when Pfizer paid a $2.3 billion dollar fine for misleading clinicians through their marketing campaigns. Gabapentin is often thought of as a benign medication that can address symptoms in several common disorders including migraine, chronic pain, fibromyalgia, opioid use disorder, anxiety, and mood disorders. There is now mounting evidence that this medication is not as safe as people once assumed yet many of these prescribing practices continue despite a lack of quality data. Today we will review the safety and efficacy of gabapentin in psychiatric disorders. 

How Does Gabapentin Work?

Gabapentin functions by binding to the alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage gated calcium channels theoretically offering antipain, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic properties. Although it’s structurally related to the GABA neurotransmitter, there is no direct interaction at GABA A or B receptors. 

Why is there such an increase in Gabapentin prescribing?

In the United States the opioid epidemic drove much of the 64% increase in gabapentin prescriptions 2012 to 2016 as policy makers searched for safer alternatives for pain management. Although lacking any data for the treatment of chronic pain, gabapentin was elevated into this role because of several factors cost, non-controlled status at the federal level, evidence in neuropathic pain, and benign side effect profile. 

However, the risk for gabapentin abuse became apparent as more prescriptions were written. The risk of adverse effects was prevalent when combined with other CNS depressants such as opioids, the exact thing gabapentin set out replace. Approximately 15%-22% of people with an existing substance use disorder abuse gabapentin. Those who overused gabapentin were found to be at increased risk of all-cause or drug-related hospital stay and emergency visits for altered mental status and respiratory depression. 

The off-label prescribing of gabapentin comes with risk. 

Evidence For Use in Anxiety Disorders

The evidence for gabapentin’s use in anxiety disorders comes from only two industry sponsored studies with a total of 172 participants. These are relatively small but well-designed studies that provide limited evidence for the use of gabapentin in anxiety disorders. The first study was in 1999 and looked at the use of gabapentin in social anxiety disorder. 69 participants were randomized to placebo or gabapentin 900-3600 mg/day for 14 weeks. A significant reduction in social anxiety was observed over the 14 weeks and the conclusion was more studies were needed to confirm the results. The other study looked at panic disorder with the same study design and doses of gabapentin, only this time the study lasted 8 weeks. The results indicated gabapentin was effective for severe panic disorder. One thing we notice is neither of these studies focused on generalized anxiety disorder. These results have not been replicated in other studies. 

There is far more evidence for the use of pregabalin in anxiety disorders. In Europe it does have regulatory approval for generalized anxiety disorder. 

Evidence For Use in Bipolar Disorder 

I’m going to burst this bubble and maybe a few other bubbles up front. While some believe all anticonvulsants are “mood stabilizers” they are wrong. Gabapentin has never proven in RCTs to treat mania or any other aspect of bipolar disorder. Likewise, Topiramate and oxcarbazepine have performed poorly in studies assessing their efficacy in bipolar disorder. Simply put, if you are on any of the three medications as primary mood stabilizers it’s best to consider other options such as lithium. 

Evidence For Use In Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorder  

While addiction treatment is part of the reason we are in this mess with gabapentin, it does have a role in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder. The APA added gabapentin as a second line option for AUD because patients who take it for this indication report fewer heavy drinking days with an effect size in the moderate range. There is also some indication that sleep quality improves with gabapentin when patients are cutting back or stopping alcohol use. Alcohol is known to worsen sleep with more frequent nighttime awakenings. The dose range is 300-3600 mg/day in divided doses with many using an average of 900 mg/day. 

Gabapentin is sometimes used for alcohol withdrawal in place of benzodiazepines or phenobarbital. There were a few seizures in the gabapentin groups raising some questions about its use in severe alcohol withdrawal. It’s probably best left for those with less severe dependence. 

Typical Taper for Alcohol Withdrawal

-Start with 1200-2400 mg/day in three divided doses 

-Taper to 600 mg/day over the course or 4-7 days watching for objective signs of alcohol withdrawal and have Ativan available should a seizure develop. 

-Taper by 300 mg/day over the next 2-3 days until the medication is completely off. 

In cannabis use disorder there is limitted data. A single study showed improvement in withdrawal symptoms, reduced cannabis use, and improved executive function but this is not enough to recommend gabapentin on a regular basis in clinical practice. 

It’s important to note gabapentin failed in controlled trials for cocaine, methamphetamine, benzodiazepine, and opioid use disorder. It’s dangerous to combine gabapentin and opioids as discussed earlier in the video. 

A Quick Note on Gabapentin for Chronic back pain 

There are 8 total studies including a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess pain relief in patients with chronic lower back pain a reason many patients tell me they are taking gabapentin for. When you pool this data together, gabapentin demonstrated minimal improvement in pain compared to placebo and had an increase in adverse effects including dizziness, fatigue, and visual disturbances.

Adverse Effects 

The most common side effects include sedation, fatigue, dizziness, imbalance, tremor, and visual changes. 

Dosing

Gabapentin has a short half-life of 6 hours and will need to be dosed three times per day. The kinetics of gabapentin are not linear which means levels in the blood do not rise consistently. For a 900 mg dose, only 540 mg is absorbed. This has to do with the transporters responsible for gabapentin absorption becoming over saturated limiting the amount of medication absorbed. 

Conclusion

While there are very good reasons to consider the use of gabapentin many of the common reasons cited in clinical practice lack the appropriate evidence to support using the medication. It’s best to stick with FDA approved indications and if you are prescribing it off-label consider only using it for the disorders with the most evidence in my opinion that is alcohol use disorder when other treatments have failed. 

When Serotonin Goes Bad

Many medications that work as so-called antidepressants will increase serotonin by blocking the reuptake pump. In general, we think of increased serotonin in a patient with depression as a good thing, but what happens when increased serotonin goes bad? 

That is what we are here to talk about today, what happen when there is too much serotonin in the central nervous system?

Being prescribed too many serotonergic medications can result in Serotonin Syndrome which can range from mild to severe and is potentially fatal. It can present with muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, and altered mental status. 

When someone has increased muscle tone, and elevated temperature with no other explanation, it’s time to look at their medication list. Medications can increase serotonin release, block reuptake, or directly activate serotonin receptors. Common examples include linezolid, Fentanyl, and dextromethorphan.

Watching from drug interactions like CYP 450 inhibitors can increase medication levels resulting in serotonin syndrome. Whenever a new medication is prescribed consider doing a drug interaction check to make sure the new medication doesn’t inhibit a critical cytochrome. 

Mild forms of serotonin syndrome may cause diarrhea or tremor where the more severe cases are more likely to result from a drug overdose. 

Key Features of Serotonin Syndrome: 

  • Patient is on one or more serotonergic drugs 
  • The onset of symptoms is abrupt usually within 24 hours and symptoms peak rapidly 
  • There is increased tone in the legs more than the arms, tremor and hyperreflexia are present 
  • Vital signs show hypertension, hyperthermia, tachycardia, and tachypnea 
  • Labs can show increased creatinine kinase 

What is Clonus: 

  • Involuntary, rhythmic muscle contractions. 
  • It occurs more in the lower extremities 
  • To induce clonus, you flex the patient’s foot upward until there is rhythmic beating of the foot and ankle. If the beating continues beyond a couple of beats, it’s abnormal 

Treatment: 

  • For mild cases discontinue serotonergic medications and check for drug interactions. Use external cooling measures and start benzodiazepines. 
  • For moderate cases where the vital signs are worse and there is spontaneous clonus or agitation: use the same measures as above, increase the frequency and dose of the benzodiazepine, and start cyproheptadine 12 mg followed by 2 mg every 2 hours until improvement is seen followed by 8 mg every 6 hours for maintenance. Cyproheptadine is an anticholinergic, antihistamine, and anti-serotonergic medication 
  • In severe cases, where delirium develops and there is a failure to respond to other measures, admission to the ICU and the use of paralytics with intubation and ventilation are required 

The Most Feared Side Effect of antipsychotic Medication

Introduction: 

I get a lot of questions about the risks and side effects associated with antipsychotic medications. These medications are no longer used exclusively in schizophrenia, and they are now widely accepted as treatment for bipolar disorder, adjunctive therapy for depression, and even severe anxiety disorders resistant to other medications. 

As a result, more people than ever are being prescribed these medications and many are concerned about the risk of side effects. One that I get asked about all the time and maybe the most feared of all side effects is the often-irreversible movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD). 

This discussion and video will help you understand the risk of developing TD and the approaches to managing it should symptoms develop. 

EPS and Dopamine Blockade: 

Dopamine receptor blockade can cause a variety of movement disorders, after all dopamine is directly involved in the process of movement. We call the movement disorders associated with dopamine blocking medication extrapyramidal syndromes (EPS). 

Most EPS develop shortly after staring medication and are treatable with medication and stopping the offending agent. This is not the case for TD. There is a delay in the onset of symptoms (tardy) and persistence of the symptoms well after the medication has been stopped. 

TD can develop after medication is used for a few months, or as little as a few weeks in the case of elderly patients. TD can also occur when a medication is discontinued or reduced. 

Myths About TD: 

  • The longer you stay on an antipsychotic the more likely you are to develop TD. The prevalence (proportion of people who have a condition at or during a particular time) of TD increases with time, but the incidence (number of new cases) decreases with time. 
  • With first generation dopamine blockers 40-50% of patients developed TD but not in a linear fashion. Half of the patients developed TD within the first 5 years of taking medication. The incidence is about 5% per year over the first 5 years and then the incidence decreases to 1-2% per year and levels off after that. 
  • TD is more likely to occur in the first few years of treatment and less likely after 5 years of treatment. 
  • The risk of TD does not increase if acute EPS occurs and does not decrease if no acute acute EPS develops

Risk factors for the development of TD: 

  • Diagnosis of schizophrenia 
  • Older age 
  • Female sex 

Schizophrenia itself causes TD and has been described in the literature long before medications were used as treatment. The prevalence was lower about 5-10% Vs 40% seen after medications were used in treatment. This occurs because schizophrenia is not just a disease of the cortex it also involves the basal ganglia which is responsible for the movement disorders. 

TD Risk at 1 Year of Treatment: 

  • Risperidone 0.6% 
  • Olanzapine 0.5% 
  • Haloperidol 2.7% to 4.5% 

It’s clear from this data that first-generation dopamine blocking medications have a much higher rate of TD compared to the second-generation medications. This 0.5% rate is similar to the rate seen in the natural course of illness in schizophrenia (essentially the same as placebo). 

In patients with mood illnesses who use dopamine blocking medications there are very low rates of TD. It can occur in mood disorders but it’s very infrequent and does not occur at nearly the same rates seen in schizophrenia.

The risk of TD is associated with the underlying pathology of schizophrenia which is distinct from other mood disorders. 

Treatment of TD:

For a long time, there was no treatment for TD. In the last few years two medications have been developed Valbenazine (ingrezza) and deutetrabenazine (Austedo) both of which are FDA approved. 

The mechanism of action of these two medications is VMAT-2 inhibition. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibition results in decreased monoamine activity at the synapse. 

The studies used to gain FDA approval of these medications showed a mild improvement on the abnormal involuntary movement scale of 2-3 points in patients with mild TD. 

It’s important to keep in mind TD did not go away fully but it did improve over placebo. 

The best treatment for TD is to stop the dopamine blocker. In some cases, if the dopamine blocker is stopped early enough TD is reversible. In many cases the medications are continued because there are no other clinical options and you are left with treating TD with VMAT-2 inhibitors. 

The Best Antipsychotic Medication in The World 

Introduction:

I’ve said it before in previous videos, older medications are more effective and newer medications have fewer side effects. 

The advent of SSRIs in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s was largely driven by safety and not efficacy. The same is true for antipsychotic medications. This may be the reason most people haven’t even heard about Clozapine (brand name Clozaril). 

Efficacy

Clozapine is the single most effective antipsychotic available, and it works in treatment resistant schizophrenia where no other medication is proven to be effective. 

The results speak for themselves, 30% of previously treatment resistant patients experience symptom reduction within 6 weeks and that number jumps to 60% after 6 months of treatment. 

Clozapine has a slew of additional benefits including mood stabilizing prosperities (it can be used in bipolar disorder), reduction in psychogenic polydipsia and the hyponatremia associated with it, reduction in hostility and aggression, reduction in the risk of suicidal ideation, improvement in substance use, and it may even help patients quit smoking a difficult task in schizophrenia. 

So why are most schizophrenic patients not on this medication if it’s so great? 

Side effects, side effect, side effects

-Sedation: feeling tired this can largely be mitigated by dosing the medication at night before bedtime. 

-Tachycardia: It’s worth getting an EKG in patients with preexisting heart conditions or those at high risk due to hypertension and hyperlipidemia 

-Sialorrhea: excessive saliva production leading to drooling, no one wants this 

-Dizziness

-Constipation: this should be addressed immediately if a patient complains about it as it can lead to serious complications. In many cases Senna and Colace will do the trick

-Orthostatic hypotension 

-Weight gain 

Serious and potentially fatal Side effects include: 

-Agranulocytosis: decreased absolute neutrophil count which can result in increased risk for serious infection and the reason everyone on the medication gets weekly blood draws for the first 6 months 

-Seizures: clozapine is known to lower the seizure threshold 

-Myocarditis: inflammation of the heart usually due to a viral infection 

The risk for agranulocytosis is highest when starting treatment, usually during the first year of treatment (0.8%) and the maximum risk is between 4 and 18 weeks (when 77% of cases occur), although it can still occur at any point in the treatment.

Agranulocytosis

Monitoring is thus very important, and each patient must be registered in the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation strategy (REMS) data base before starting the medication. 

A CBC with differential must be drawn to calculate the absolute neutrophil count prior to starting treatment and then weekly for the first 6 months. Then monitoring continues every 2 weeks for the next 6 months and finally monthly after the first year of treatment. 

If agranulocytosis occurs stopping clozapine allows majority of cases to recover within 14 days. 

Now that we know that this medication is very effective but comes with a high side effect burden a natural next question might be why does the medication work? 

Mechanism of Action

Clozapine has very low affinity for the D2 receptors which is unique as most other antipsychotics will bind strongly to D2 receptors. Clozapine had far greater D1 and D4 binding affinity, blocking both receptors. 

Clozapine also has significant activity at other neurotransmitter sites. It blocks alpha receptors which may be the reason for orthostatic hypotension. It blocks histamine H1 receptors resulting in sedation and weight gain. It blocks 5-HT2A serotonin receptors and is highly anticholinergic resulting in constipation and urinary retention. 

It has two unique properties; it influences the glutamate system by altering NMDA receptor sensitivity and increases the release of brain derived neurotrophic factor BDNF. 

Metabolism And Drug Interactions

Clozapine is primarily metabolized by CYP450 1A2 and 3A4 and cigarette smoking will cause a reduction in clozapine levels due to induction of CYP 1A2. 

Before Starting the Medication

Before starting clozapine, the ANC must be above 1,500. If neutropenia develops treatment will depend on the severity of the drop. 

Mild Neutropenia: ANC 1,000-1,499, you would continue treatment and check an ANC three times weekly until it reaches 1,500. 

Moderate Neutropenia: ANC between 500 and 999, stop treatment and check the ANC daily until it reaches 1,000 then 3 times weekly until it reaches 1,500 then weekly for 4 weeks before returning to the patients prior monitoring schedule. 

Severe Neutropenia: ANC less than 500, stop treatment and check an ANC daily until it’s 1,000 then 3 times weekly until it’s 1,500. The patient should not be rechallenged without a hematology consult and clear benefits that outweigh the risks. 

Dosing

Clozapine can be started at 12.5 to 25 mg at bedtime. The dose can be increased 25 mg/day inpatient and 25 mg per week in the outpatient setting as tolerated. 

You can overlap prior treatment with another antipsychotic and tapper the old medication once clozapine dose reaches 100 mg or more. 

Plasma Levels

Clozapine dose should be based on serum levels, with a target blood level of 200 to 300 ng/ml. If there are still symptoms present the target serum level is 450 ng/ml. There are no benefits to serum levels above 900 ng/ml. 

Everything You Need to Know About Trintellix (Vortioxetine)

Introduction:

Vortioxetine is sold under the brand name Trintellix, and Brintellix and it’s approved for use in major depressive disorder. The name was changed to Trintellix in the U.S. due to confusion with Brillinta an anti-platelet medication. It was studied in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) at lower doses, but the quality of the evidence is poor and does not appear to improve symptoms or quality of life in patients with GAD. 

I want to make a quick point before going into the details about the medication. When I say the effect size is moderate and Vortioxetine does not perform better than other options for depression, I’m not saying in an individual case that it may not outperform other antidepressants that the person has tried in the past. It very well might for that individual. I’m talking about on average in large sample sizes, Vortioxetine does not outperform other medications according to the current literature. It’s also not a go to medication for treatment resistant depression, the literature does not support this either.

The one place Vortioxetine does seem to stand out is cognitive function. Multiple studies have shown this medication to improve cognitive dysfunction associated with depression. It also appears to improve cognitive function in geriatric depression but failed to show any benefit in neurocognitive disorders like Alzheimer’s disease. It was also looked at as a potential treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but failed to show an adequate benefit in trials. 

Mechanism of Action and Receptor Targets

This medication falls into a class known as serotonin modulators and stimulators. It is thought to work by several different mechanisms:

-Serotonin reuptake inhibitor

-5-HT1A agonist (may diminish sexual side effects) 

-5-HT1B partial agonist 

-5-HT1D, 5-HT3 (may enhance noradrenergic and cholinergic activity that improves cognition while reducing nausea), and 5-HT7 antagonist (pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects) 

The most robust action is on serotonin reuptake and 5-HT3 antagonism, while the other interactions are considered minor. 

Target Affinity Ki (nM)Action 
SERT1.6Inhibition 
NET113Inhibition 
5-HT1A 15Agonist 
5-HT1B33Partial agonist 
5-HT1D 54Antagonist 
5-HT2C180 
5-HT3A3.7Antagonist 
5-HT719Antagonist 

Metabolism

Vortioxetine is metabolized by CYP2D6, 3A4/5, 2C19, 2C9, 2A6, 2C8 and 2B6, the half-life is 66 hours and it’s dosed one time per day. Reduction is dosing may be needed for patients taking strong CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g. bupropion).

Dosing:

-5-20 mg/day 

-Tablets come as 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg 

-The initial dose for depression is 10 mg which can be increased as needed to a maximum dose of 20 mg daily. 

-For GAD does were kept lower 5-10 mg/day range 

-Can be taken with or without food 

-It can be stopped without a tapper 

Side Effect:

Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, constipation, sexual dysfunction, weight gain is unusual but possible. Nausea and sexual dysfunction were the most common side effects; all other side effects were reported in less than 10% of cases. 

Sexual dysfunction was found in both the plebe group and the treatment arm. The incidence was 14-20% for placebo and 16-34% for those in the treatment arm.

Rare life-threatening side effects include seizures, induction of mania and suicidal ideation. 

Avoid using tramadol as it can increase the risk of seizure, and do not combine with MAOIs as this can result in serotonin syndrome. 

It’s generally not recommended in pregnancy. 

Conclusion

While this medication may be helpful for some individuals there is no evidence to support its use in treatment resistant depression or other disorders outside of the primary indication major depressive disorder. There does seem to be a benefit for patients who have significant cognitive dysfunction as a result of depression and maybe that is where this medication best fits into a treatment plan. The main side effects are nausea and sexual dysfunction which are common with all antidepressant options. You must also consider the cost of the medication in comparison to duloxetine which outperformed Vortioxetine in some clinical trials.

Guide To Viewing My Content

If you are new to the blog and my social media content, we should start with a brief introduction. 

My name is Dr. Garrett Rossi, I’m a medical doctor who specializes in adult psychiatry. I’m board certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. I’ve practiced in multiple settings including inpatient, outpatient, partial care, assertive community treatment teams, and I provide ECT services.

I make mental health content on multiple social media platforms and each one has a specific style and type of content. 

Shrinks In Sneakers YouTube Click Here

This is where you can find the deep dives on mental health topics including medication reviews, psychiatric diagnosis, and various other topics. Videos can range anywhere from 5-20 minutes and time stamps are available in the descriptions for longer content. 

Shrinks In Sneakers Instagram Click Here:

This is where you can find shorter videos and posts on mental health topics. The focus on Instagram is more on mental health advocacy, and myths about psychiatry and mental illness. The content here is shorter but still has a lot of educational value. 

Shrinks In Sneakers LinkedIn:

This is where you can find more information about my professional activities. I have information about my advocacy work, professional memberships, publications, and is another good place to follow my work. I make frequent posts here as well. 

Shrinks In Sneakers Twitter

Here I’m not very active and haven’t spent much time but I do update blog posts and other relevant information here as well. 

If you have a question or want to get in touch with me, I am most active on YouTube, LinkedIn, and Instagram. 

We are building a community where empathy is a central part of the content. The goal is to make psychiatry more accessible, provide education, and reduce stigma associated with mental health treatment. 

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